The Farm Plan

So far in this blog we’ve talked about a few of the things that we have been doing leading up to this farming endeavor. We’ve spent some time playing around with our chicken infrastructure, gardened without great intention, and thrown in some bees and ducks for good measure. Our journey started much like many other small-scale producers, as more of a homestead-focused operation. When we decided to produce food, the intention was to feed our family the best food we could. We wanted to know that if we were going to eat eggs and chicken they were going to come from animals that had a chance to bathe in sun and dust, scratch and peck, and eat grass and bugs. By now, most of you have probably seen pictures or videos of commercial poultry facilities where the term “factory” certainly applies more than “farm”. Chickens crammed in cages for egg production or packed like sardines in buildings with no room to really move while they plump to market weight. The same types of scenarios play out across the agricultural landscape and do a fine job of pumping out high quantity, low quality food. When most people imagine where their food comes from, it’s not this that they’re picturing. When you buy that “Certified Organic” chicken breast, you’re picturing “free range” chickens, which in your mind means they are free to graze the fields as the please. You may want to investigate those organic standards a bit unless you just don’t want to know that most of those birds won’t ever see a blue sky in their lives. They may have slightly better living conditions and be fed a healthier ration, but that range of theirs may just be in the form of a small pop-door that leads to a small concrete patio. This may seem a bit cynical, but hopefully it starts to paint the picture of why raising our food is so important to us. We like to know that our chickens, whether for meat or eggs, get to eat grass, bugs, and organic grains. We like that they have space to stretch out and don’t have to have their beaks trimmed to keep them from pecking each other bloody. We like that we don’t have to prophylactically feed antibiotics to keep them from getting sick when better management could prevent the most common illnesses. We’ve been privy to conditions of commercial livestock production for probably 15 years or so now and it’s one of those things that once you are aware, you can’t just forget about it. Unfortunately, many consumers don’t care, don’t want to know, or don’t want to/can’t spend the extra money for humanely raised meat. We are certainly not perfect in this regard, but it is one of the motivations for us to raise our own meat.

Having said all that, what is the plan? Well, we quickly realized that we enjoyed supplying our own chicken meat and eggs, but we were still reliant on outside sources for our other animal proteins and much of the rest of our diet. This is where things have started to ramp up pretty quickly as of late. As we started to think about all of the products we wanted to raise for our freezer and pantry, we realized that given the infrastructure costs necessary, it would make more sense to raise a surplus and sell what we don’t need to cover the cost of our food. As that thought process evolved we began to realize we both were getting really excited about the prospect of farming rather than just homesteading. Now, many people will probably scoff at us calling ourselves farmers, but that’s ok. There are examples all over the world of people producing an abundance of food and fantastic incomes on small amounts of land through proper management. It really is an exciting time to see all of the innovation in small-scale agriculture. Land is prohibitively expensive, but people are learning how to effectively manage small amounts of land through intensive grazing, stacking enterprises, and developing new techniques while improving the soil. We may not have thousands of acres of row crops or 600 hogs, but we have a desire to raise food that can nourish our family and our community, so that sounds like farming to us. As you know, we currently have chickens, ducks, and bees, but let’s walk through the enterprises we plan to add to our farm and how we plan on expanding what we’re doing now.

 

Chickens: This seems like a natural place to start since we actually have them on-farm! We’ve talked about our recent losses and frankly we’re lucky to still have enough chickens to provide us with eggs. As you know, we have a batch of chickens coming from a hatchery as well as a batch of eggs in our incubator. With those additions to our flock, we’ll probably end up with around 60 hens this Spring, but most of those won’t start laying until around August. To someone who keeps a flock of backyard chickens, 60 hens may seem like a lot, but when we’re talking about egg production, it’s really not. The margin on eggs is razor thin, so it takes a lot of birds to make an egg venture financially viable. We don’t really see eggs as being the main focus of our farm, but we really enjoy being able to provide them to our customers and there aren’t too many local options for organically-fed, pasture-raised eggs in our local market. We will probably add another batch of 40 hens or so in the late summer so they’ll start laying in early 2019. Late this summer we should be getting around 20 dozen or so eggs a week and that will increase to over 30 dozen a week with the extra hens for 2019. We feel like this is a manageable number of eggs for us to be able to sell. We will evaluate our market and determine where we want to be in terms of our laying flock, but we think this is a good starting point. We think we produce really high-quality eggs and they should prove to be a nice accompaniment to our other products.

On the flip side of chickens, we have our meat birds. In the past we have just processed excess heritage breed roosters for our own freezer. These birds take around 16 weeks to grow out and have a much smaller breast than your typical supermarket chicken. We really enjoy the depth of flavor these birds provide, but don’t think it’s something that the typical consumer would prefer. So, our plan for meat chickens is to raise Cornish X hybrids. We will be profiling these birds in a separate blog post, but we’ll give you a quick comparison to the heritage birds for now. The Cornish X is the commercial standard for chicken. They grow to market weight in about 8 weeks on the same amount of supplemental feed as the heritage birds, but produce more meat and a much larger breast than the heritage birds. The taste and texture of these birds is what most people think of when they think of chicken. We will raise these on pasture and supplement with organic feed, so while they are the same birds produced in commercial models, they will be more nutrient dense the way we raise them. Our initial run will just be 20 birds so we get a feel for how to best manage the Cornish X. Assuming things go well, we plan on producing another batch of the Cornish X later in the year. We will let you know when we are going to do that and give you the opportunity to pre-order some whole chickens for your family’s freezer. Our second batch will likely be limited to around 50 birds, but we will be looking to expand that number significantly.

Turkeys: Our first batch of turkeys is set to hatch in May. We ordered 15 assorted heritage turkeys and plan to keep a breeding trio of one Tom and two hens to hatch out more birds each year. Turkeys are said to be a little harder to keep alive in the brooder phase, but once they reach a couple months of age, they’re very hardy. We ordered heritage birds because we liked the idea of being able to breed them instead of having to spend around $11 for EACH baby. Commercial turkeys that most people are used to seeing cannot naturally mate. Because they’ve been bred to have such large breasts, the Toms cannot mount the hens. Somebody’s job is to artificially inseminate a bajillion turkey hens so we can have dirt-cheap, flavorless, dry Thanksgiving turkey. As with the rest of our poultry, we will be pasturing our turkeys. The heritage birds will take 5-6 months to grow to a respectable table size and will cost a significant amount to raise. We are giving them a trial run this year, but will likely add some commercial strains next year to offer consumer choice. The commercial Broad-breasted White turkey is basically the turkey version of the Cornish X and produces a larger table bird over a shorter period of time. Even so, pastured birds end up being expensive to raise, and expensive to purchase. It’s not uncommon to see a $100 pastured turkey, but we think the consumers in our market are engaged enough in the local food movement to understand the importance of high quality turkey as the centerpiece for their Thanksgiving table. We are going to gauge interest this year before determining an expansion plan for the turkey enterprise, but it will probably not expand beyond 50-100 birds, just because of infrastructure, transportation, and processing costs.

Muscovie-min

Ducks: We currently have 9 Muscovy ducks. Well, technically they’re not actually a duck, but everyone calls them ducks. We traded some pullets for them, a couple grape vines, and a hardy fig last year. We didn’t get the drakes scheduled with the processor in time last fall, so we plan to have them processed with our first batch of Cornish X this spring. The drakes are just now reaching maturity and have become a terrible nuisance as of late. Our original plan was to cull the drakes and bring in an unrelated drake with our 5 females to allow them to hatch out fertilized eggs. Our new plan is to cull the drakes and see how we like their meat before we decide to bring in a new drake. We’ve read that they don’t line breed very well, so bringing in unrelated genetics is a must. Muscovies are well-known for their ability to brood multiple batches of ducklings a year on their own. We’ve read that their meat is a little different than typical duck meat and some say it’s similar to roast beef. If that’s truly the case, we may look into keeping them on the farm, but if we’re underwhelmed by the meat, we will likely process the females when we take our heritage birds to the processor a couple months after the Cornish. Frankly, we find the ducks to be a bit of a pain. Muscovies are often referred to as “land ducks” and they don’t require a pond or anything to be happy, but that doesn’t mean they don’t love to instantly hop in any waterers they can as soon as they are filled with fresh water. We constantly have to clean out the baby pools we have for them and have to freshen the chicken waterers that we use in the winter because they get them filthy. Really they make everything remotely near a water source filthy. We’ve had them in a confined run since we got them since they’re pretty decent fliers, but perhaps we need to give them a chance out on pasture before we eliminate them from the farm completely. Most of our complaints would probably be mitigated if they were managed a little better. The other concern, however, is we really have no idea what kind of market there is for their meat. Duck eggs are highly valued for baking, but Muscovies are not known as good or even consistent layers, so if we want to get into duck eggs we would likely move to something like a Khaki Campbell. Basically, the future of Muscovies on our farm is not set, but you could say they’re on the chopping block.

Bees: We are not good beekeepers. Our first hive of bees starved last winter because we didn’t realize we should have been feeding them in late winter/early spring. We got a new package last spring, but we didn’t get enough honey to take any for ourselves. So far, this hive is still alive (at least it was a week ago). We’ve put some sugar water in a feeder for them and hope to keep them alive so we can harvest some honey this year. Bees are fascinating and we really love observing them. We also love having a hive on the farm to help with pollination in our garden. Tending the beehive is a bit of a chore for us, however. If we were focused on honey production it wouldn’t be a big deal, but since we have so many other things going on, it’s often a challenge to find the time during the right part of the day, with the right weather, to light the smoker and check the hive. We use a lot of honey in our cooking and really want to harvest our own, but if things don’t go well with the hive this year, we’re not sure how willing we’ll be to reboot the bees again. Our motivation for bees is purely for personal consumption, so it may not be wise to keep it as an enterprise on our farm if it can’t pay its own way. We have some great local honey producers that we will patronize if our hive ends up failing. If we are able to harvest honey this year, it will be the most expensive honey we’ve ever had.

Sheep: Sheep were kind of the catalyst for Shannon to get on board with the whole farming thing, mostly because we got to get two fuzzy puppies. We are only interested in meat production, so we will be focusing on meat breeds rather than wool breads. Our ideal sheep would be a hair sheep like a Katahdin or perhaps a Katahdin cross. Hair sheep don’t require sheering like their wool counterparts and tend to be hardier. Our plan is to have sheep serve as not only a source of meat production, but also as a key player in pasture regeneration. The main area we will be grazing them in is an established pasture that was hayed for years prior to us purchasing the property. The other side of our driveway was in conventional monoculture cropping when we bought the property. We seeded a pasture mix into it a couple years ago and it’s now filled with some rye, fescue, and clovers, but it’s pretty thin. Our grazing plan centers around moving the sheep into a new paddock of grass every day and only allowing them the amount of forage they can utilize in the time they are in the paddock. This forces them to eat all of the types of forage available to them in the pasture rather than picking and choosing the best bits. With too much space, animals will overgraze their favorite forages and undergraze the less desirable areas. You can imagine how this serves as a detriment to pasture quality. While the sheep are in their paddocks they will also be adding manure and urine to the ground, which will also aid in the improvement of the soil. In a pasture-based system, nothing is more important than the soil structure. We hope to manage our livestock in a way that will increase our soil’s organic matter and microbial activity which will in turn provide better forage for our livestock, all while improving water retention, erosion, etc.

We will be adding sheep to our farm this year, but first, we need some infrastructure in place. Our plan is to install perimeter fence around our main pasture and create paddocks with temporary fencing inside that permanent perimeter fence. We will also need to figure out a system for moving their water with them. As with most things we do, that will likely take many iterations before we get it right. Like many aspects of farming, this will require a decent capital outlay and significant labor, but we hope to get started on it this spring. Our long(er)-term goal is to do something similar on the other side of our driveway where our pasture needs significant improvement.

Pigs: When we first started thinking about the farm, we were planning on having some pigs over by the garden to do our plowing for us and then letting them graze in the clover field, but the more we thought about our farm layout, the less we liked that idea. Our property has about 10 acres of woods that we currently don’t really do anything with other than source firewood. The area closest to our pasture has a gentle slope that becomes much steeper after a few acres. We think this area of 2-3 acres is going to make for an ideal spot for pigs. It has mature oaks, black walnuts, and cedars, which will provide ample shade as well as forage in the form of acorns and walnuts. The underbrush is pretty thick in all of our woods, so we’re looking forward to having the pigs clear that out for us. Our plan with pigs is somewhat similar to the sheep, except we won’t be moving them daily. We plan to install a perimeter of high tensile electric fence and then subdivide that area with paddocks that we will rotate the pigs through as needed. We have a water lined stubbed off near the area that is in place for a future shop, so we will install a frost-free hydrant near their paddocks. Our biggest challenge is going to be hauling feed to them and loading them in the trailer, but we have some ideas on that. We have a lot of room to expand in the woods if we decide we want to add more pigs later, but we’re probably going to start with around 6 wiener pigs and build that up to doing two batches of 12 a year. Our plan is to start out buying in pigs to feed out, but if it makes economic sense to keep a breeding sow or two, we will consider that after we get some time with pigs under our belts. Our neighbor keeps pigs, so it will be nice to have his experience available to us even though his methods are more aligned with commercial production. It will likely be 2019 before we add pigs to the mix, but when we do we will probably start by selling half and whole butchered hogs and then adding a retail cut component as we add more production. As with our chickens, we will be providing organic feed to the pigs in addition to their forage.

Flint Hills315-min
This is just a photo to represent our future cows. This one actually belongs (belonged?) to our friend’s ranch in the flint hills.

Cattle: This is the component of our farm that most people with farming experience will probably laugh about. We don’t have a ton of acreage, but we have determined that with intensive grazing practices using daily paddock moves, we can accommodate 4 head of cattle at a time, processing two a year. These would likely be 500# stockers that we bring in and finish on grass to around 1000#. They will be grazing in a rotational system with the sheep and poultry and will provide the biggest impact as far as pasture improvement for us. Fortunately, we have the advantage of being able to build our fencing infrastructure for the sheep in a manner that will allow us to contain cattle as well. We obviously will be sourcing smaller-framed cattle like Lowline Angus or similar crosses. We think there are environmental advantages in the production models of grass fed and finished beef as well as nutritional advantages. We will have to carry these cattle on farm much longer than grain-finished cattle, but we plan to house them off pasture in the winter to minimize negative pasture impact and feed them hay during that time.

Market Garden: We currently have an area that’s roughly ¼ acre for our garden area. We are planting a plethora of veggies this year and are planning on really trying to get this aspect of our farm dialed in a little better. We will likely need to scale back the varieties in production as we move forward and just focus on products that will be marketable and profitable in our context. We have enough space to expand our garden to an acre or more, but we want to get really good at that ¼ acre scale before we expand beyond that. If you take a look at what people like JM Fortier and Curtis Stone are doing on small food plots you can see the direction we’re hoping to head.

Well, there you have it. We’ll probably look back at this and wonder what the hell we were thinking and laugh about our naivety, but this is where we think we’re starting and where we think we might be headed. Life happens and we reserve the right to change our minds, but we think we can create a farm that will nourish our bodies and minds and hopefully we can share that with like-minded people in our community. Thanks for joining us on this adventure!

 

 

Choosing a Coop Design for your Farm

There’s no “right” way to build a chicken coop, but there are plenty of wrong ways. Trust us. When we first seriously considered getting chickens we had read a ton of reference material from the likes of Joel Salatin, Harvey Ussery, and Glenn Drowns. We definitely knew what we were doing. Well, to date we have built four chicken coops and are going to be starting number five in short order. Clearly we are slow learners and you should certainly be cautious in taking any advice from us on this matter, but hopefully you can learn from our mistakes and get it right the first (or second) time. As with most things, nothing can replace experience. What is right for our context could be a disaster in yours. Today we’re going to discuss the coops we have and what our future coop plans are.

The coop that started it all:

 

We actually got a lot of things right when we built our first coop, but there are several things we would change if we could do it again. As we mentioned in previous posts, we had every intention of getting chickens when we lived at our last house, but life got in the way, and we had to alter those plans. We knew we wanted a coop that could be moved around the pasture to minimize impact on the soil and forage. With this in mind we decided to build our first coop on a trailer. This is actually a really good idea for people that don’t want a typical, stationary coop with a scorched-earth run off of it. Chickens will eventually denude any vegetation around their coop and you will be left with an area that won’t regrow and will turn muddy with the rain. With this mobile coop idea in mind we drove to the nearest Harbor Freight and bought a 4’x8’ single-axle trailer to use as the foundation. It was cheap and there would be no waiting for the right trailer to pop up on Craigslist. Okay, that was mistake number one. With a little patience we could have almost certainly found a better, bigger, and cheaper trailer for sale locally. Mistake number two was buying a single-axle trailer with no tongue jack. After adding a fairly unstable tongue jack to the trailer we framed up walls with windows on two sides and a man door on the back wall of the trailer. With the walls up a sheathed with thin OSB we realized we wouldn’t be getting chickens any time soon because we were selling our house and moving into town while we built our new house. We hooked the trailer up and towed it to our new land and parked it behind a row of cedar trees where it would become home to packrats while the OSB rotted and warped in two years of extreme Kansas weather. We probably should have finished the coop before parking it, but it ended up working out ok because we decided to tear off the sheathing and add 18” on each side to make it 7’ x 8’ allowing us to house more birds.

Once we were all moved into the new house our focus shifted back to adding chickens to our lives. We took the leap and ordered 25 (the hatchery minimum) at the end of 2015. So, while we’re pointing out things we did wrong with our coops we should probably add that it’s not really wise to order chickens when you don’t have a coop and maybe you should just go to the farm store and get a handful of chicks when you’re starting out. When you start designing your coop you should figure out how many chickens you ultimately want to have to determine how big your coop needs to be. Coops that are just being used to house the birds at night and during inclement weather don’t need to allow as much floor space as coops that will house birds full time. It’s advisable to at least allow your birds a run to go out in during the day where they can scratch around and do chicken things, but if you can’t or won’t do that you should probably have 10 square feet of coop space per bird or more (or don’t get chickens). If you are going to let your birds out to range you can get by with as little as a couple square feet of interior coop space per bird. Just something to keep in mind when you see those tiny coops at your local farm store that they claim can house 10 birds. We had 56 square feet to work with in our first coop and decided that we would be fine ordering 25 chicks because half of those chicks would be roosters and would only be in the coop for a few months before being processed and they would be allowed to day range inside paddocks of electrified poultry fence. What we didn’t realize when we built the coop was that our real limiting factor was roost space. With the bump outs at the bottom we were able to create real, useable floor space for the birds, but higher up we could only squeeze in two roost bars that totaled around 14 feet of roost space. It’s recommended to have around 8” of roost space per bird. We are comfortable housing 12-16 adult birds in that coop, but we’ve stretched that at times. We staggered our roosts on either side of the coop to allow the birds to fly up to the shorter roost and then hop up and over to the other, higher roost. Having never owned chickens before, we didn’t realize the space they need to fly up to roosts. We would not build a coop as narrow as this one again. We made a pop door out one side in a manner that the door could swing down like a draw bridge and create a ramp for the chickens to walk out. Well, that worked great, but it didn’t reach to the ground. Easy fix, we just put something under it to keep it at a reasonable angle for the chickens to walk down. The bigger issue is that in short order, the space between the door and coop gets filled with pine shavings and other junk which prevents the door from closing. It can be brushed out, but still an unpleasant step. Finally, we added a nest box that can be accessed from the outside of the coop. In a coop this small, this element is a life-saver. Initially, the nest box was one, oversized box, but the hens kept kicking all the straw out and didn’t always lay in it. We added 2×4 partitions on the floor of the box and added another 2×4 across the bottom of the opening to keep the straw from getting kicked out as easily and now they lay in it consistently and we don’t have to freshen the straw as often. That nest box has three spots, but the hens typically all lay in the same one. Go figure.

chickens in coop483-min.jpg

With the coop built and chicks brooded it was time to move them to the big coop. Well, after moving the coop into the field we realized that we had made a big, heavy coop that was poorly supported. We maybe moved it two or three times, but it took way too long and it was terribly difficult to re-level each time. It has since been parked in a permanent spot and the pop door now stays open full time leading into a huge run. We built the run something like 24×40 feet with 8’ tall walls covered in welded wire and added aviary netting over the top. This has been a really valuable area to have in the late fall and winter as our red-tail hawk pressure ramps up tremendously. Where we may have a couple hawk-related casualties the rest of the year, we tend to lose a couple birds a week when the weather turns cold. So, this coop has served us well, but it would have been much better had we done something similar, but used an old hay wagon as the foundation so that it would have been bigger and we could just hook up and pull it forward without having to worry about leveling it.

Our second coop came straight out of Harvey Ussery’s book The Small-Scale Poultry Flock. Once we realized the limitations of our original coop we wanted to add something that would be affordable, quick to build, and mobile. We also wanted a place that would allow us to separate out the roosters as they began to mature and started relentlessly tormenting the hens. Since we had a lot of scrap lumber laying around and a small pile of free steel siding from a family member we figured the Ussery plan would fit the bill and cost us less than $100 in materials we didn’t already have. This coop is a basic A-frame that allows the roof to serve as the walls and the cross bracing to serve as roost space while also providing the structural integrity. We have used this coop to separate roosters from the rest of the flock and we have also used it to house our chickens while we started raising our ducks in the first coop. This design is really great and super easy to move. The wheels are removable to allow the coop to sit directly on the ground when it’s not being moved. In just a couple minutes you can pop the wheels on, drag it forward, and remove the wheels. We plan on using this coop to do a small batch of Cornish cross meat birds this year.

 

The downside of the A-frame is that the nest box Ussery recommends has a wire mesh bottom and we’ve found that our straw tends to not stay in as well. Since the roosts are basically the same height as the nest box, chickens tend to roost on the edge of the nest box and make a real mess of it. We likely won’t use this coop for laying hens again. They had a tendency to lay eggs on the ground, which resulted in us having to crawl into the coop on hands and knees to retrieve them. Not ideal. This is one aspect that could pose a challenge when we gather up our meat birds for processing. It would be nice to be able to walk in the coop or remove the top to be able to grab the birds. We’ll see how it goes, but if we decide to do meat birds on a larger scale we will probably shift to Salatin-style pens (which we will talk about if we end up building some).

The third coop we built was not really a well thought out one, but it would provide more floor space and the ability for us to walk in the coop easily. We have several stacks of pallets that inspired us to put on our Pinterest hats and create a chicken coop out of them. We framed up floor joists and a floor and then built walls and a roof out of the pallets. Then we took some cedar fence pickets that a builder was going to throw away and used those for the bottom half of the exterior walls and finished the walls and roof with purchased metal. We used 6’ tall shutters that the builder was also throwing away as saloon-style doors and cut a couple squares in the walls for windows. We skimped a lot on this coop and didn’t put a proper overhang on the roof, so we had some water getting in that would not dry quickly. Luckily it was so ventilated that the moisture didn’t create any respiratory issues for the birds, but if we had kept them in there long-term we would have needed to correct that for sure. The idea for this coop was that some of the chickens would live in it for a while, but it would ultimately become our turkey coop. It butts up to the end of our run that has some framing that we plan to enclose and build turkey roosts in. Well, that plan got scrapped when we decided to get our livestock guardian pups. The chicken/turkey coop is now an 8×8 doghouse and we’ve extended the roofline so they are protected from the elements. We will probably put in some window awnings and fix one leaky spot, but it’s proving to be a great, cozy shelter for them.

coop turned doghouse 2-min

Our most recent chicken coop was motivated by a rash of hawk attacks this past fall. We lost a handful of hens in about a week and a half. The final straw was when a hawk flew into the chicken/turkey coop and killed a hen right in the middle of the coop. It flew out when we showed up to collect eggs that day. Well, we like our hens to have access to fresh pasture every day, so we decided that another mobile coop would be best. We wanted something that would be easy to move, easy to collect eggs in, and would protect the birds from aerial predators. After seeing several “hoop coop” ideas online we decided to create our version of one. Basically we just used some 2x4s on edge as the base frame with some corner bracing and arched a couple 16’ cattle panels from one side to the other. With some added bracing across the ends and inside we had a surprisingly stable coop that we could walk into. We covered the ends with hardware cloth and put chicken wire at the bottom of the sides. Then, we fastened a tarp across the top and made some nest boxes out of 5 gallon buckets and we were in business. We put this coop in our garden area and let the chickens till for us as we moved them forward every day. Well, everything was going fine until two stray dogs managed to shred the tarp and a little terrier was able to rip back some of the chicken wire and squeeze through a grapefruit-sized hole in the side. Needless to say, we lost more hens that day than we would have lost to hawks all winter. In hindsight we were lazy. We should have secured the coop better and still used our electric net fence around the coop even though the chickens wouldn’t actually be leaving it. The remaining chickens have since been moved back to our original coop with the protected run and we have been adding organic matter to the run to allow them something to dig around in. If you are going to use a run for your chickens rather than let them range, it would be a good idea to look into using a deep litter method. You can add hay, wood shavings, leaf litter, food scraps, etc. and the chickens will basically make compost for you. We really liked everything about the hoop coop design, but it would require some beefing up to return to use in our system. Perhaps once our LGDs are older they would be able to deter any would-be predators from it.

 

As you can see, we haven’t mastered the art of the coop yet. Not counting the Cornish cross, we have 33 chicks coming from the hatchery and we are planning to incubate around 4 dozen eggs to coincide with our hatchery order. So, we clearly need to make arrangements for additional housing. Fortunately, we are a little less than a month out from having chicks and we can factor in an additional 3-4 weeks of brooder time after they arrive, giving us almost two months to get that infrastructure in place. Again, not advisable, but we can’t help ourselves sometimes. We haven’t quite settled on exactly what the next coop will be, but we’re leaning toward something that will be able to house >100 birds. It will likely be a structure that we put in the middle of our pasture so that we can run paddocks of electric fencing off it rather than moving the structure itself. Ideally we’ll be able to rotate their paddocks with the sheep, so it may end up being a structure that can house both species. The alternative to that would be to make another, albeit much larger, mobile coop. The idea behind that would be that we could move it along behind any ruminants we decide to graze (sheep or cattle) and they can scratch through the manure for worms and bugs while spreading it around as fertilizer. The downside to the mobile coop would be increased labor in moving it, but it would fall more in line with the regenerative grazing practices we would like to incorporate in our pastures. We will devote an entire post to the planning, building, and implementation phases of that process once we get it figured out. The clock is ticking.

So, if you’re thinking about building a chicken coop, try not to make the same mistakes we did. Really take your time and think through what your goals are for your flock. We’d love to hear about your coops and what things you like and dislike about them!

Choosing the right chicken coop for your farm - by www.1450farm.com
Choosing the right chicken coop is a big decision. Here is a post about the pros and cons of our different coops.

Honey Sweetened Chocolate Chip Cookies

Honey Sweetened Chocolate Chip Cookies

I don’t know if many of you know this but we try to stick to a low [cane] sugar diet. Meaning, we are not religious about it, but we try to avoid super sugary treats sweetened with cane sugar or corn syrup. It’s tricky to do and we are not perfect.

Growing up in a Catholic family, we always made it a fun challenge to give up something we loved for lent. In 2015, I gave up SUGAR. It was HARD. Sugar is SO addicting and it’s no wonder; according to researchers from Queensland University of Technology, excessive sugar consumption increases the dopamine levels in a similar way to other drugs such as cocaine. Whoa, talk about a sugar high. I literally didn’t have an ounce of sugar for 40 days (and 40 nights) and guess what, I no longer craved it! Now, I’m human and social and I slowly allowed myself a sugary treat once a week thereafter but tried to keep it to a minimum. (I repeat, I tried but sometimes failed)

Anyway, lets get back to the point shall we? COOKIES. Ok, so chocolate chip cookies have always been one of my go-to’s for a sweet fix. Is there really anything better than a warm, fresh-out-of-the-oven, chocolate chip cookie with a glass of ice-cold milk?

If you have a favorite Chocolate Chip Cookie recipe, keep in mind you could probably replace all of the sugar with honey (cut the quantity by 25%-50% depending on how sweet you like them) and still really enjoy the cookies. My family is so used to me cutting back (or sometimes out) the sugar in most things, they don’t mind when sweets aren’t as…well, sweet. In fact, sometimes even the littles will say things that aren’t homemade by mama, are too sweet!

That being said, for this recipe, I did add just a little brown sugar to help with the texture and at the same time adding a hint of that brown sugar bitter-in-a-good-way flavor. But I have eliminated all added cane sugar in the past and you still get a good cookie.

I also love splitting the “fats” up between butter and coconut oil. I both love the flavor and added moisture I get from doing it that way. Ok, ok, here is the recipe.

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Chocolate Chip Cookies made with Honey and Coconut Oil

  • Servings: 12-24
  • Difficulty: easy
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Ingredients:

2 ½ cups flour (we like King Arthur’s)

1 tsp baking soda (we like Bob’s Red Mill)

½ tsp salt (We like Redmond’s Real Salt )

½ cup butter, softened

½ cup coconut oil, softened (We like Spectrum’s brand)

¼ cup of brown sugar

½ cup of locally sourced honey

2 tsp vanilla extract (we like to make our own!)

2 farm fresh eggs

1 12oz package of Semi Sweet Chocolate Chips. (We like Ghiradelli Semi-Sweet Chocolate Chips)

Preheat convection oven to 360 degrees F and get out two cookie sheets and cooling racks if you have them. Some people like using a newspaper with a dishtowel if they do not have a rack.

Combine flour, baking soda, salt, mix and set aside. In a mixer, mix together the butter, honey and brown sugar until fluffy. Crack eggs into a small bowl and add with vanilla to the butter mixture slowly until incorporated.

Carefully add the flour mixture into the creamed mixture until well mixed. Be sure to scrape the bowl.   Put the mixer on the slowest setting and add in your chocolate chips a little at a time.

Using a tablespoon, drop cookies onto ungreased cookie sheets at least 2 inches apart. Bake 8-11 minutes – remove once beginning to turn a golden color. Let sit on the baking sheet for 5 minutes before removing to cooling racks. Let cool until room temperature and then place in an air-tight container to prevent from going stale. Don’t forget to taste test with a big ol’ glass of milk!

P.S. It REALLY helps to have two crazy kids ages 4 and 6 to help. No really…. It truly does. You can come borrow mine…ANYTIME. You’ll burn the calories you are about to consume while cleaning up after them!

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Now some of you hard-core sugar free peeps will not approve of this recipe. It is not designed for diabetics or the like but for those of us who like their sweets on the lighter side. ❤

Cheers!

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Choosing Chicken Breeds

Chickens are often jokingly referred to as a gateway animal. We’re not laughing. Okay, maybe a little, but they’re the reason we’re in this mess in the first place. We had plans in place to get chickens since the day we first moved to the country, but as we mentioned, the timing just wasn’t right until a couple years ago. With copious amounts of research under our belts and no real infrastructure in place, we took the leap and decided to order a batch of 25 chicks from Murray McMurray hatchery in late 2015. Our first order consisted of Barred Plymouth Rocks, Buff Orpingtons, Speckled Sussex, and Silver Grey Dorkings. Our choice to order from McMurray centered around the availability of all of these breeds at the same time, something that was difficult to be guaranteed at other hatcheries. The biggest wild-cards were the Dorkings and Sussex as they are not super common breeds and have consistently been on The Livestock Conservancy’s priority list for poultry (They have 5 levels of endangerment: Critical, Threatened, Watch, Recovering, and Study). These breeds were chosen based on their reputations as good layers with good temperaments, and table-worthy carcasses. With the order placed, the pressure was on. We had started building a coop on a trailer at our last house, but much of it had rotted in place over a couple years, so it was time to tear down and rebuild. We wouldn’t recommend not having infrastructure in place prior to getting any livestock, but we were confident that we could finish the coop in time. Spoiler Alert: We did! We have since built a few other coops and will be adding a fifth this year, so we will share those designs along with their pros and cons in another post. We will also document our brooding and incubation procedures next month!

When it comes to choosing chickens for your flock, the options seem limitless. Your location, size of desired flock, and goals will ultimately help you decide the best route for you. When we decided to raise our own chickens we were looking to get birds that would supply us with eggs and meat. In the chicken world, these breeds are usually referred to as “dual-purpose”. Dual-purpose breeds are typically purebred heritage breeds that will lay well and reach a respectable size for the table. Our plan was to order our chicks “straight-run”, meaning that they wouldn’t be sexed at the hatchery and we would likely end up with about a 50/50 split of females and males. Hatcheries usually send an extra chick or two and we ended up with something like 14 hens (or pullets as they’re referred as youngsters) and 12 roosters. We decided that we would keep all of the hens, along with two roosters, and send the rest to the processor around 18 weeks of age. We are fortunate to have a USDA poultry processor about an hour away, so after we labored over processing 3 ourselves, we decided it would be best to have the professionals finish the task for us. On processing day, one of the roosters escaped our grasp and ran into the woods, never to be seen again…or until we got back from the processor and he was waiting to be let into the coop (we ended up selling him, a beautiful Speckled Sussex to a family that had lost their rooster to a fox attack). We kept our nicest rooster, a Barred Rock named Max, as our main rooster and a secondary Silver Grey Dorking rooster to serve as our breeding male to breed purebred Dorkings. The Dorking is said to be a superb table bird and we had planned to use them for filling our freezer in the future. Well, Max turned evil and could no longer be trusted around our children, but since we named him and loved him he stuck around until a hawk did us the favor of ending his reign of terror. The next day we called the Dorking roo up to the big leagues. Two days later, he met the same fate as Max. We were now rooster-less and really wishing we had kept the Sussex, who we heard was doing great and ended up being super friendly. Go figure.

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Our boys with our first Barred Rock rooster, Max. He started out so sweet….

During the course of the first year we lost some of our hens to hawk attacks as well (and a couple Dorkings got hung up in our electric poultry net fence and died, possibly because of their extra toe). So, as any chicken addict would do, we ordered 20 more chickens the following spring. This time we went with Hoover’s hatchery because we were ordering more common birds, they had lower prices, and a lower purchase quantity requirement. We chose to get White Leghorns, Americana (Hoover’s spelling of their variety), Cuckoo Marans, and a hybrid egg-layer call Tetra Brown. This batch would add some color variety to our egg basket with white, brown, chocolate brown, and pastel blue/green eggs. During that Spring we also got half a dozen chicks from our local Orscheln farm store (more Buff Orpingtons, a Rhode Island Red, and some Easter Eggers). Oh, and we also incubated some of our eggs along with some eggs we traded with a friend. And there may have been a trip to Tractor Supply to get some straight-run barred rocks since we didn’t have any birds for the freezer that Spring. When the manager at Tractor Supply says if you take the rest of the Barred Rocks you can have them for $0.50 a piece, you should probably walk back out the door. That’s exactly what we did…with 23 more barred rocks and a couple Black Australorps that had somehow ended up in that batch of Rocks. Fortunately, the biggest chick was a Black Australorp rooster that we called Jon Snow. He is currently our main rooster and is everything we hoped Max would be. He has two Americana roosters, that were supposed to be pullets, as his arch nemesis. Ultimately, we ended up amassing a collection of 77 chickens. Whoops. We ended up selling some and we traded a few older pullets for 9 Muscovy ducklings, a grape vine, and two hardy figs. After all was said and done (and extra roosters processed) we ended up with about half of the number of chickens we started with.

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Baby Jon Snow – Our Black Australorp Roo. We first joked that the farm store gave us a baby crow.

As we mentioned in our post about our puppies, we’ve lost several more chickens and we’ve also decided to build our flock up a little bigger than it was so that we can expand our egg sales (which have come to a screeching halt after losing half our flock). We wanted to add good production and color variety into the flock, so this year we chose to order some Ameraucanas (blue/green eggs), Speckled Sussex (since we have none left), Blue-laced Wyandottes (beautiful birds), Welsummers (of Kellog’s cereal Rooster fame), Pearl White Leghorns (egg-laying machines), Columbian Wyandotte (beautiful – our youngest son picked them), and a fresh batch of Silver Grey Dorkings (to restart our attempt at breeding). Our oldest son has been asking to get Turkens for about a year now, so we decided to get a few of those for him. Turkens are also called “Naked Necks” because they have no feathering on their necks and look kind of like little turkey buzzards. He also wanted to get some White Crested Black Polish chicks, so obviously we caved to that request, too. You’ve probably seen those little gals, they look like they’re wearing a fancy little hat of feathers. The final component to this year’s order is our first batch of Cornish Cross meat chickens. While we have enjoyed the meat from our heritage birds, they really aren’t going to be a viable meat bird solution as we start producing chickens for market. Cornish Cross can create a bigger bird in 7-8 weeks than a heritage bird will in 16-20 weeks. We could ramble on for some time on our decision to raise Cornish Cross, so we will, in another blog post. Another thing we’ll do to round out our flock this year is to incubate some eggs ourselves. We are going to try to hatch out some of our own Easter Egger type chicks along with several mutts and probably some eggs that we will swap with a friend of ours that is also a chicken hoarder. We will be starting the incubation process later this month and taking the incubator to our youngest son’s classroom a couple days before hatch so the kiddos can experience the process. His teacher has put together a whole lesson on chick hatching that includes eggs for each of the 21 days that show what is happening inside the egg as the chicks grow. Sharing this process has certainly been a highlight for us in our short chicken-keeping careers.

It may seem that our process is a little haphazard and probably not the best way to maximize profit in an egg production venture. That is correct. We have discussed shifting to a system that includes only one type of hybrid egg-laying bird, but it just isn’t what we want to do. We enjoy going out and seeing a multitude of colors in our flock and having egg colors that range from white to green and myriad browns in between. Would we produce more eggs with a strictly hybrid flock? Yes. Would the nutrition levels of the eggs be the same? Yes. Would the eggs look the same once the shells were cracked open? Yes. Egg production is just a component of our farm, not the primary focus, so we have the luxury of being able to make a choice that brings color to our lives and our customers’ refrigerators. You can bet, though, if we wanted to just focus on eggs, we would definitely be using hybrid layers that could give us the best egg production of uniform size and color possible. Again, your goals need to dictate your choice when it comes to selecting your chickens. Every farm is different, so what works for us, may not work for you.

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Our lovely egg colors. Its hard to tell but the ones furthest away are green!

A final word of caution when assembling or expanding your flock; be careful bringing chickens in from other farms. If you have a local breeder or hatchery that is trustworthy and has a good track record of healthy stock, by all means, use them. But, be wary of buying chickens from auctions or off Craigslist. Biosecurity is a big issue for farms and you could unknowingly bring a contaminated animal onto your property that could infect your flock. Any time you buy an animal from another farm, make sure to assess the health of the animal and the practices of the farm you are buying from. If you see unsanitary conditions for the animals or any indications that the animal could be sick, don’t be afraid to walk away. It is also good practice to quarantine any animal you bring onto your farm until you can confirm that it is healthy and does not pose a risk to your other animals.

Okay, didn’t mean to scare you. Go get some (more) chickens.

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Seed Starting

Every year winter seems to crawl along like cool molasses. The world is colored by myriad shades of brown. Sometimes it’s hard to remember if Spring is something dreamed up in your mind’s eye or if you will actually be able to see it. Smell it. Feel it. And then one day, as you sit by the fireplace and look across the valley through a pane of frosted glass, a panic convulses your body. You rifle through your calendar (not as dramatic on an iPhone calendar) and breathe a sigh of relief as you count back the weeks from your average frost-free date. There’s still time.

In the past we’ve been guilty of starting seeds too early, too late, and somewhere in between. We’ve had makeshift stands, sawhorses covered with plywood, and old dinner tables strewn with seed flats in garages, basements, and guest bedrooms. This year we’ve finally come up with a seed starting setup that should serve us well for years (and more importantly, one we won’t have to cobble together at the last minute). If you look in seed and garden supply catalogs you will see beautifully streamlined multi-shelf units equipped with casters and grow lights. You’ll also see that those cost a small fortune. Well, for a fraction of the cost of one of those units, we were able to put together two units that should each handle 10-20 seed flats. We bought two shelving units from Sam’s Club for $90 each (or you can buy this  shelving rack from amazon) and then simply mounted a fluorescent shop light above each shelf (except the top one). In each fixture we put one cool and one warm T12 fluorescent bulb. We’ve always had great luck with plain old cool bulbs, but we read that you get a broader spectrum of light if you use one of each. Theoretically it should make a difference. You’ll notice we don’t use bulbs specifically for “growing”. If you already have them, go ahead and use them, but don’t bother buying more, they are super expensive and regular bulbs will serve you just as well. Make sure you can move your lights up and down to keep them as close to the plants as possible to keep plants from becoming leggy and stretching to try to reach the light. Once the fixtures were attached to the shelves we just ran the cords neatly down the side and secured them with zip-ties. We plugged each light into a power strip mounted to the side of the shelving unit where we could also plug in the Hydrofarm heat mat we use.

This shelving set up is pretty big, but luckily we have a large art studio above our garage where Shannon paints and does photography, so if she needs it out of the way she can just roll the units to another part of the studio. With our set up taken care of, we focused on timing our seed starting. The easiest way to do this is to find what your USDA hardiness zone (planthardiness.ars.usda.gov) is and from that, determine what you’re average frost-free date is for the Spring. Once you’ve determined that, you can begin calculating all of your seed starting dates based on the date you can start planting out in the garden. Keep in mind that your frost-free date is just an average and soil and air temperatures may not be what you need them to be. It’s important that you start your seeds counting back from the date they will actually be planted out, not always just the frost-free date. Some plants, like tomatoes and peppers, will only thrive if the soil temperature is warm enough.

What we’ve done this year is put together a farm calendar that has reminders for everything we need to do, from seed starting to incubating. It takes a little time, but it’s worth it to go through each variety you will be growing and make note of when it needs to be started, whether indoors or directed seeded in the garden. It is also important to note multiple dates if you will be doing any succession planting to spread your harvest across a longer season for crops like radishes, carrots, lettuce, etc. Once you have some experience gardening, this is a good time to put together a plan for where everything will go in your garden and plan for how you can fill in the parts of your garden that have been harvested. If you have an opportunity to replant an area you can reap a bigger harvest and not just have an area lay fallow. If you don’t plan on planting a late season/fall crop after an early season crop is harvested, you might also consider growing a cover crop in that spot to help with erosion, fix nitrogen, or just to add more organic matter back to the soil when the cover crop is incorporated back in. We’re really good at the initial planning phase, but are really focused this year on doing a better job with succession plantings and extending our growing seasons.

We have traditionally started most of our seeds in the typical 50-cell flats using organic pro-mix. Some people like to put clear, plastic domes over their seed flats to keep moisture in for germination. We don’t always do this, but it’s important to note that if you choose to do this, remove the domes as soon as your plants germinate to keep mold, fungus, and rot from damaging your plants. As our plants grow, we will pot them up to bigger pots to insure they don’t become root bound and stunted. We were gifted a couple different sizes of soil block makers for Christmas, so hopefully we will do some experimentation with soil blocking in the near future, but for now we are sticking to our tried and true starting methods. We’ll be sure to keep you posted on our soil block experience as it develops. If you don’t want to spend the money on plastic flats to start seeds, you can use anything from old cups, yogurt containers, and milk jugs to egg shells and egg cartons. Just make sure whatever you use is clean and will accommodate the roots of your plants. We use generic spray bottles to water our seed flats as to not disrupt the plants by a heavy stream of water. Over the years we’ve had great success without supplemental heat mats, but if you have them or don’t mind spending the money on them, they can provide a great benefit in the germination of plants like tomatoes and peppers (these are the only seedlings we’ve consistently used heat mats). We’ve heard anecdotal evidence that peppers do better when the heat mat cycles on and off with the light, allowing the soil a cooling down period overnight. This is not something we’ve ever tried, but we will be experimenting with it this year as we grow our bell, frying, and jalapeno peppers.

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Our onions are sprouting!

Some of the earliest crops we start indoors are onions and asparagus. We’ve got a hundred or so onions and the same number of asparagus started already this season. A lot of people just plant 1 year-old asparagus crowns to get their first harvest faster, but we’re cheap and just start it from seed. We have a small patch already started (the third house we’ve started them at) and are going to expand it with this years starts. We’ve also added microgreens to the mix and will be continuously harvesting them once we get our timing and sales schedule down for that. We plan to devote one whole shelving unit just to microgreens! Generally, we like to start many more seeds than we really need to hedge against poor germination and because we can get a little carried away selecting seed varieties ☺. If all goes well this year, we will have extra started plants for sale in the Spring. We will be growing some varieties that you won’t be able to find in the local garden centers and nurseries, so stay tuned if your interested in adding some new varieties to your garden this year.
Starting your own plants from seed can seem a little overwhelming, but in the long run you will save money and be able to get a much broader array of varieties than you would otherwise have access to if relying on local garden center starts. Give it a try and let us know how it goes!

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Selecting Seeds to Grow in the Garden

If you’re like me, your local post office probably has to hire an extra mail carrier just to deliver all of the seed catalogs (and bee equipment catalogs, and hatchery catalogs, and farm equipment catalogs, etc.) that show up in your mailbox this time of year. I’ve thought about seeing if I could be taken off the mailing list of several companies since I can see the same thing on the internet, but for some reason I just can’t pull myself away from using the catalogs for everything up until the point I actually order seed. Sure, I’ll cruise through various websites looking at reviews of certain varieties, but when it comes down to determining what is going in the garden in a given year, I’m seated at the table surrounded by catalogs and a disheveled bin of leftover seeds that were hastily thrown into ziplock bags the prior year. Have I mentioned that my seed storage system is high on my priority list this year? I envision a nice shelving system, lined with glass canning jars filled with the hope of a bountiful harvest. My very own seed bank entrusted with preserving the genetic bio-diversity necessary to sustain the global food system. Or a haphazard menagerie of ziplocks, strewn about a 25 quart Sterlite tub. It has served me well, no need to reinvent the wheel, right? I’ll feed the world another day.

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This year, as the seed catalogs began rolling in, I decided I would start by going through all of the seed I had retained through the years. I assume many of you are learning as you go as well and may not realize that seeds have a sort of expiration date. If you look on your seed packet it will have some information around the year it was packed and by when it should be used. I don’t look at this date like some people look at a milk expiration date. The repercussions of using an “expired” seed will, at worst, be poor or no germination. You will not want to scrape your tongue and taste buds out of your mouth with your garden hoe as you might with sour milk. Now, if you are a serious market gardener/farmer you will not have the same flexibility as a home gardener when it comes to getting seeds germinated at the proper time and getting your produce to market, but if you are in a situation that grants some wiggle-room with planting and harvesting dates, by all means, use some of your older seed. Certain seed types will keep better than others, but I’ve had luck getting pretty good germination out of some tomato and jalapeno seed that had been poorly stored for the better part of a decade. If you decide to roll the dice with seed that is over 2 or 3 years old, you might be well-served to toss a couple extra seeds in each cell when you start your seeds. I’m always a little sad to thin my seedlings, but I would rather have a pile of micro-greens or chicken scraps than no germination at all.

Once I inventoried my seed and made the executive decision to toss anything that was over 3 years old (excluding one packet of sweet pea currant tomatoes that I’m convinced will never stop germinating and consistently produce roughly 47,000,000 of the tiniest tomatoes you’ve ever seen. If you have small children they will love harvesting the tomatoes for you!) I needed to start my search for replacements. I started by making a list of everything I want to grow this year. To do this, I used a list from last year along with the box of seeds sitting in front of me. I mean, if I have the seed already, I’m going to try to grow it whether I think it will perform or not. Which brings me to another point that is important for new growers. If you try a variety that doesn’t grow well or doesn’t produce like you’d hoped, don’t give up on it in one year. Sometimes weather events or soil conditions or a host of other issues can cause certain vegetables to not perform in a given year, but the next year they can perform quite well. Now, if you have a couple years of disappointment or if you’re trying to grow long season crops in short season climates, certainly don’t waste your time. I digress. Once I have my list made, I look at the holes I need to fill with my seed order and I put a number on each varietal indicating how many I want to grow this year. I have a pretty good stockpile of seed from the last two years, so my orders this year were relatively small. I needed some sweet corn, bok choi, a slicing cucumber, yellow squash, acorn squash, micro greens, eggplant, carrot, and one of our all-time favorite cherry tomatoes – the Sungold. What I actually ordered was all of that, plus sugar snap peas, tennis ball lettuce, a fourth variety of green bean, two yellow squashes, another variety of cherry tomato, another slicing tomato (because 11 tomato varieties wasn’t enough), a back up pack of jalapeno seeds in case my trusty old seed doesn’t germinate well enough, and another variety of onion. If you keep chickens you’ve probably heard the term “chicken math” which basically means that once you start with chickens, your flock will just keep multiplying. Well, I think “seed math” must be a thing, too.

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As I mentioned, I get a lot of seed catalogs. Over the years I have started to really pare down the companies I get my seed from for a couple of reasons. One, I’ve had success with certain varieties from certain companies and I trust I can count on those seeds. Two, shipping costs can start to add up when you start ordering from multiple companies. Some companies offer free shipping over a certain price or will send promo codes out, but I usually end up getting those offers after I need to start my seed anyway. If you have a friend or two that garden, see if they want to go in on seeds together. And if you don’t have any gardening friends, get them started with your extra seed and split future seed orders! This year I limited my orders to Johnny’s Selected Seeds and Seed Savers Exchange . That said, the bulk of my current seed is Franchi seed from Seeds from Italy  with a smattering of Renee’s Garden seeds. Seeds from Italy is a company that imports Italian seed and distributes it from right here in Lawrence, KS! We have a fantastic local hardware store (what’s up Cottin’s?) that carries a pretty good selection of their seed and I just order any of my desired varieties that they don’t stock. They also carry Renee’s seeds, which is why I have some of those. The Franchi seeds are unlike any seeds I’ve gotten from other suppliers. They come in huge envelopes and, depending on varietal, include a ton of seeds. If you are used to getting like 10-40 seeds per packet, you’ll be blown away if you buy some of their seed. The only downside to the Franchi seed is that it isn’t as beginner-friendly as say Johnny’s simply from a packaging and instructional standpoint. If you look at a seed packet from Johnny’s you will be directed exactly what the germination times, planting specs, days to harvest, etc., but if you look at a Franchi packet you will see an odd little chart on the back with colored dots, a plethora of verbiage in other languages, and no real instruction. You can gather most of the requisite info from the Seeds from Italy website or catalog, but it’s an extra step. That said, some of the Italian varieties are unique and out-of-this world delicious (Striato D’Italia zucchini, Charentais melon (which I believe is actually a French melon), Verde da Taglio chard, and on and on).

When I select seed I don’t get too hung up on whether the seed is certified organic or not. We garden without the use of chemical inputs and will typically buy organic seed if it’s available, but I don’t sweat it if I can only get a varietal I want in non-organic form. When I started gardening I was insistent that all of my seed be organic and heirloom. My gardens failed a lot. While many of the heirloom varieties produce vegetables with outstanding flavor qualities, they don’t always produce in sufficient quantity or with the hardiness to withstand transport. I’m not saying tomatoes should be of the quality I can get in the supermarket in Kansas in January, but it would be nice to have something that can make it across town to a market or customer. Sometimes I’m not sure why they even call those pale orange, crunchy, South American, winter imports tomatoes. What I’ve begun doing is implementing a mix of heirloom and hybrid vegetables to kind of hedge my bets. Often times certain varieties will have resistance to certain diseases or pests and it’s nice if your entire crop of something isn’t wiped out if that problem presents itself. Hybrids get a bad rap in the local/sustainable food movement because people associate them with things like GMOs when really they’re just an F1 cross with no genetic manipulation. This same discussion comes up when people talk about Cornish X meat chickens, but I will talk more about that when I talk about our meat birds. The only downside to hybrids in your garden comes if you want to save seed since the seed of an F1 hybrid won’t breed true. Meaning you can’t save the seed and expect the plant grown from that seed to exhibit the proven traits of the parent plant. So, if you aren’t saving seed it would probably serve you well to include some hybrid plants in your garden. The heirloom varieties typically have superior flavor qualities, but lets face it, a garden-fresh tomato picked at peak ripeness is going to taste a hundred times better than any store-bought tomato could, regardless of what variety it is.

A lot of people suggest starting small when it comes to gardening, but I was never good at deciding on just a few things to grow, so I say start however you want. One thing I will urge you not to do, though, is grow stuff you don’t like to eat (unless you want to grow it for someone else). Notice I never mentioned beets in my garden. No matter what size your garden is, you’ll learn and get better as you go. If you feel smothered in town like I did, plant some patio containers or just till up your whole damn yard and realize that even a 1/16th of an acre garden will produce a lot of food.

Sausage, Mushroom & Roasted Broccoli Frittata

So, we thought we’d try something new with the blog. Okay, the whole thing is new, you got us there. Our original plan for the blog was to just post some weekly content that was relevant to the current goings on of the farm, but since a lot can happen here in a week, we decided not to be constrained by some predetermined rules.

One of the reasons we choose to farm is that we love to eat. And if you eat, you are directly connected to agriculture whether you want to be or not. Sure, we could buy everything from the supermarket and not think twice about it and trust that the growers are doing what they say they are and the labels mean what the say they mean, but that would leave us wanting. Perhaps I’ll touch on my feelings regarding food labeling and what it means to me in a future post, but suffice it to say, I like to know EXACTLY how my food was produced. This is all to say, connected to our love of food, is a love of cooking. So, we thought we’d try to occasionally share recipes that we like that incorporate the foods that we grow.

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We like to find recipes that serve as guidelines and then make whatever changes suit our needs or work with our pantry. We also like to be able to use ingredients that can span several dishes for the week. In this case we had some Italian sausage held back from spaghetti night along with some mozzarella pearls and mushrooms held back from pizza night that would transform a somewhat pedestrian frittata recipe into a hearty, scrumptious, filling meal. Feel free to substitute whatever veggies or protein you like and serve it with some fruit and a bed of microgreens for a nutrient-packed dinner, lunch, brunch, breakfast, or midnight snack. Roasting the broccoli really makes this dish, but you could steam it if you’d rather.

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Sausage Mushroom Roasted Broccoli Frittata

  • Servings: 8-10
  • Difficulty: easy
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Ingredients:

½# Ground Italian sausage, browned

¼ fresh basil, loose

2 cups broccoli florets minus a few bites for you vegetable-loving dog

½ cup sliced mushrooms

10 eggs (isn’t it handy having chickens?!)

Salt and pepper to taste

Dash of Turmeric for good measure

½ cup shredded cheese (mozzarella, parm, or mix of whatever you like)

½ cup Mozzarella pearls

3 Tbsp butter, divided

¼ cup milk

Directions:

Preheat your oven to 425 degrees (F) and line a baking sheet with parchment paper. Combine broccoli and mushrooms in a large bowl. Melt 1 Tbsp of your butter and pour it over broccoli and mushrooms. Season with salt and pepper to taste and stir to combine. Spread evenly on your baking sheet and roast for 15 minutes.

While the veggies are roasting, grease (butter, oil, lard) a 10” cast iron skillet (or similar baking dish). When the veggies are finished, reduce the oven to 350 degrees (F). After the veggies have cooled a bit, whisk together the eggs, milk, basil, salt, pepper, turmeric, and shredded cheese. Pour this mixture into the prepared skillet and sprinkle with cooled broccoli, mushrooms, and Italian sausage and gently press them into the egg mixture.

Bake for 25 minutes at 350 until fluffy and almost set. Sprinkle mozzarella pearls on top of frittata and broil for 3-4 more minutes or until mozzarella is melted. Remove from oven and eat the second it hits your plate.

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This dish made enough for us to have lunch leftovers the next day (which is something we try to plan for with our weekly meal plans), so we enjoyed it atop a bed of microgreens with a splash of our favorite vinegarette. Speaking of microgreens, we just got our growing station set up and seeds delivered to begin our microgreen production. Stay tuned for availability!

Super delicious Sausage, Mushroom and Roasted Broccoli Fritatta your whole family will love!
Super easy and hearty Sausage, Mushroom and Roasted Broccoli Fritatta!

Why we decided to get Livestock Guardian Dogs.

As Shannon mentioned in our inaugural blog post, we are now the proud parents of two Great Pyrenees puppies. I want to talk a little bit about why we chose the dogs we did and what our plans are for them, but first, perhaps a little background is in order.

I am a master at becoming fixated on a topic, learning everything I can, developing a plan for how it will fit in my life, and then not doing anything about it. For over a decade now I have been planning the perfect chicken flock, the perfect garden layout and crop rotation, the perfect breeds of pig and sheep and the exact numbers of produce we need to put up each year to be as self-sufficient as we can. When I started said research, we had both just finished college and lived in town on a quarter-acre lot. My farming dreams could not be fulfilled on a measly quarter-acre. Defeated, I decided to build a couple raised bed gardens, a compost bin, and we planted a couple fruit trees. I started asparagus from seed and could hardly wait for the bumper crop we would surely be celebrating in a few years…but…like I said, good at planning, not so great at execution. I nurtured all of the plants I started from seed, but once everything went to the garden, it became a neglected forest. My heart just wasn’t in it. I needed to be back in the country for this to work right. This might be a good time to mention that it is painfully expensive to live in the country and we had just bought our first home at the height of the housing market in 2006. I spent almost five years looking for a rural property we could afford and had a house Shannon would agree to live in. I’m certainly not trying to paint my wife as high-maintenance, she’s far from it, but yurts and trailers were not in our future.

Well, finally I found a tiny, old house on about 7.5 acres with a couple out-buildings and a small pond. Perfect. The owner had horses and had amended a garden area with composted manure for years. Rich, beautiful soil…that would have to wait. If you ever want to do anything outside of your newly purchased, 110 year old farmhouse, don’t tear off any wall paneling, or drywall, or plan a “little remodel”. Oh, and definitely don’t get pregnant with your first child while you’re in the middle of remodeling the master bedroom and bathroom of a house that only has one other bedroom and ¾ bath. Did I mention the other bedroom in your house would be up a tight set of stairs that turned with sharp, wedge-shaped treads at the very top? A room that would be wholly unsuitable for a small child? Anyway, I plotted bigger and better gardens at that house and had some successes, but again, my heart wasn’t in it because I knew we wouldn’t be staying there. I started building a chicken coop, but put off getting chickens because I didn’t know what I’d do with them if/when we sold the place. And that horse stable that would have been perfect for a little goat herd? Same story. Back to the property search.

I’m not sure I can make this long story short at this point (we haven’t even talked about dogs yet), but we ended up finding a little over 21 acres and built our dream home on it. Oh yeah, we had another kid, too. The wheels started moving. Bigger gardens were planned and planted. The gardens had some successes and some failures (I’m still a better garden planner and planter than tender). Chicken coops were built. Chickens were brooded. Chickens were processed. Chickens laid eggs. Predators came. More chickens were ordered. Rinse. Repeat. More predators came.

And that last point was where this new farming journey really begins. “More predators came”. About a month ago, Shannon was coming home from the doctor with a severe case of strep throat and came across two stray dogs killing our chickens. I had built a hoop-style coop to house the birds for late fall and winter since we’d suffered numerous losses to red-tail hawks the year prior and the trend looked to be returning. The birds would be safe and I would just move the coop forward to new grass once or twice a day. Then, we could turn them loose in the pasture again in the Spring when the hawk pressure subsided. That all worked splendidly until a relentless little terrier managed to rip a whole the size of a grapefruit in the wire mesh covering one end of the coop and weasel his way in to start snapping chicken necks. We ended up losing 11 hens that day and undoubtedly would have lost the other 16 if Shannon had not come home when she did. I moved the surviving chickens in to our original chicken coop and huge run that our Muscovies were living in and took three injured barred rock hens to another coop to quarantine them until they died or healed. With a little luck and a lot of Blu Kote they healed. I know what you’re thinking. You’re thinking, “uhhh, dude, I just came here to look at pictures of adorable puppies.” Okay, I’ll get to the puppies.

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A couple weeks after the stray dogs reenacted “The Red Wedding” with our chickens, I happened upon a tweet from a local humane society with a fuzzy little Pyrenees/Saint Bernard mix up for adoption. I (not so) innocently texted the pic to Shannon and somehow the next day we were headed to Kansas City to add a third big dog to our family. Sadly (for our 4 & 6 year old sons), the pup and its five siblings had all been adopted in one day. Our plan had been to get the dog and integrate it into our family, but take it down to hang out with the chickens during the day to protect them from any would-be-predators. Prior to seeing the puppy tweet we really had no intention of getting a third dog. But, missing the chance to adopt it allowed us to think through our plan and do a lot more research on what type of dog would provide us with the protection we wanted for our chickens and how best to handle the training of a livestock guardian dog. As Shannon became consumed with learning all she could about LGDs, something suddenly clicked in her and she developed a much stronger urge to get more serious about farming and become a more active participant in the growth-plan for our farm. In the past I had always been the one to plan when we were getting chickens, or bees, or planting the garden. She would always help with everything, but now we were having real conversations that we never really had before around what our goals and dreams were for the farm. And here is where it is so valuable to have a partner that not only wants to do the same things as you, but also compliments you and makes up for your deficiencies. Over the past decade I have suffered from a bit of paralysis by analysis and haven’t been able to make myself commit to anything beyond a few dozen chickens, a beehive, and an often-overgrown garden. Shannon was able to research guardian dogs and develop an action plan for the farm. I joked with some friends that what I had been unable to accomplish in ten years, she was able to knock out in a long weekend. Before I knew it, we had a legal business entity, a website, a blog, short and long-term plans for gardens, chickens, livestock, and jobs for dogs.

Okay, okay, NOW I’ll get to the dogs. After researching a solution for poultry guardianship we decided that our original plans of adopting another family dog and training it to just hang out with the poultry during the day probably wasn’t going to work very well. We also decided that we would like to add some hair sheep to our farm this year for meat production. All the info out there on LGDs specifically says that they have been bred for centuries to live amongst and protect their charge. Hmmm….we’ve only ever had big dogs that live in the house with us. Can we bring ourselves to have a dog that will likely never see the inside of our house? We also read that it can take some dogs up to 2 years before they can be trusted with poultry. Oh boy, we’re Americans, two years might as well be a lifetime. Now you’re probably going to tell me that they work better as teams or that they should come from working lines. Oh bother. Well, after spending a solid week of doing nothing but researching Livestock Guardian Dogs we decided to go look at a litter of 9-week-old Great Pyrenees puppies an hour and forty-five minutes away from our house. When we pulled up to the farm, all seven of the puppies were sitting outside in a line watching us drive up the driveway. Nobody was outside, this was not staged, our hearts melted. I knew we would be leaving with two.

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I think everyone that knows us is surprised that we bought two working dogs with every intention of letting them do a job for our farm. We have long been advocates of pet adoption as shelters are filled with an endless supply of animals longing for forever homes. Many people recommended that we look for rescues or shelter dogs. That was where our search started. As much as we wanted to make that work, we couldn’t let the decision become an emotional one. We decided it would be best for the direction we want to take with the farm to get puppies from working parents who had experience with livestock and poultry and give ourselves the best odds of having puppies that would grow to do the same. We couldn’t justify rolling the dice and potentially increasing the chances of having a dog that would become a problem. By problem I mean it could wipe out our entire laying flock and meat production flock in the blink of an eye. We have a business to think about now and losing a laying flock would cost us 5 months of revenue, plus the cost of replacement birds, plus the cost of feed to get them to laying age, plus the reputation of not being a reliable source for eggs. Elimination of meat birds would set us back about two months plus sunk costs and replacement costs. We just weren’t willing to take the risk of an unknown lineage.

When we decided we were all-in on working dogs we knew that the hardest part for us would be the urge to bring them into our home. Although it’s not as hard as I thought it was going to be, part of me still wants to snuggle the not-so-little puffballs on the sofa. Honestly, I think we were relieved when we read that they work well in pairs. Dogs are pack animals and the decision to bring home two was not difficult for us as we felt better knowing the dogs would have a companion. It was sort of surreal when we were driving home with two puppies in the back cab of the truck. What did we just do? Well, as I mentioned, it can take up to two years for dogs to be good working dogs and we were both tired of waiting. If we wanted to do this, we needed to jump. The longer we waited, the longer that would postpone other dreams on the farm. So, instead of getting everything perfect, we just did it. Now we have animals that require our care and attention. I liken it to being a parent; you’re never quite ready to have a baby and sometimes you’re not really sure how you’re going to manage everything, but you just have to, so you do. That’s the approach that we’re taking with farming. We now have plans to fence in the hay field on one side of our driveway to run sheep through paddocks with the dogs and chickens. On the other side of the driveway we have an area that contains our garden that we plan to expand to the better part of an acre with the remaining few acres available for pig pasture. We are going to be pasturing some Cornish X meat chickens this spring along with some heritage turkeys as a trial run for what our meat market looks like, so we’ll keep you all posted on how those ventures progress and when we have product available. We will also be expanding our egg production, so we should be in full swing with egg availability around August or September. I’ll stop yapping now and let you get back to looking at puppy pictures.

 

We Did a Thing.

So, we did a thing. We did a big thing. We thought a lot about the thing and researched the thing like crazy.

We just came home with two Great Pyrenees puppies. They are possibly the cutest things on this planet, even covered in mud and twigs and a little stinky!

Some of you who know us may be thinking “Why on earth would this family with two indoor dogs, two young children, two full time jobs (total, not each) and a coop full of chickens and ducks want TWO puppies to deal with?”

How about a backstory to explain? See, we haven’t been doing this very long, although Aaron has been dreaming of having a homestead or farm for probably twelve years. We are on our third year of having chickens and have lost most of them to predators; mostly red tailed hawks and stray dogs. Well, that farming dream I mentioned didn’t include chickens that were unable to forage in fresh greenery and soak in the sun, nor did it include finding dead chickens.

According to our research, with the proper training, Livestock Guarding Dogs can protect all sorts of livestock animals from almost any predator out there. But guess what? The training and maturing process of a dog can be around two years. TWO years! And like the true Americans we are, that feels like forever (I want it and I want it now)! But, like planting fruit trees or asparagus crowns, you do the work up front to reap the benefits at the end. And, those of you in your thirties or later know…how insanely fast 2 years will go.

Since this is our first blog post, maybe we should have introduced ourselves. We just got so excited to tell you about the puppies because….puppies. We are Aaron and Shannon Meyer of 1450 Farm in Lawrence, Kansas and we have finally jumped into our small-scale farming endeavor. We plan to blog about it weekly (or more…or less – we’ll see how we feel), feel free to follow along at www.1450farm.com!

When I say we are jumping in, I should clarify. We have gardened since 2006, lived in the country (mostly) since 2010 (barely), have had chickens and bees since 2016 and ducks since 2017. Yeah, newbies. Aaron will probably write most of the blogs – he’s such a good writer and remembers all of those rules about punctuation I seem to have forgotten. He is also the brains behind this operation and pretty darn funny and does the most research and work on this farm.

Aaron received his bachelors in Secondary Education and Masters in Business. I got my bachelors in Interior Design. Whoops, neither of us went to school for this. Looks like this could be entertaining and hopefully a little educational for those of you reading!

Hopefully our future posts are a little more helpful for you. We plan to share our stories and adventures with you – even when we fail, so you can learn from our mistakes (or so you can sit back and laugh at with us).

Cheers!

Aaron & Shannon

 

We can’t wait to begin sharing with you!

Check back soon for posts about our adventures on the farm, our boys and animals, our failures, our successes, our RECIPES, all things homesteading and few extras!

Cheers!

Shannon & Aaron